State Structure of Ukraine
The Declaration has ten parts devoted to self- determination of the Ukrainian nation, state power, citizenship, civil rights, economic independence, cultural development, home and foreign policy.
In 1991 Ukraine was proclaimed an independent state. A nationally elected presidency was instituted on December 1, 1991. Ukrainian citizens elect their President for a five- year term. According to the laws of Ukraine, a President can’t be younger than 35 years of age, must live in the country no less than 10 years, must be a citizen of Ukraine and must master the national language. The President can issue decrees and can appoint presidential representatives to oversee policy implementation by local authorities. The President, according to the new edition of the Constitution, is deprived of the right to appoint and discharge all ministers. The candidate for the Prime Minister is offered by the majority of the parliament, instead of being appointed by the President. But the President has veto powers, the right to appoint the Ministers of Defense and Foreign Affairs, to choose the personnel of the Council for National Security and Defense, and one third of the judges of the Constitutional Court. The President determines the appointment of the head of the State Security Service and General Prosecutor. The Head of State also decides on whether to declare a state of emergency. The President is the Supreme Commander- in Chief of the armed forces, and head of Council for National Security and Defense. The President carries out representative functions as well.
Ukraine's parliament is the Supreme Council (Verkhovna Rada, Parliament). It is the highest legislative body of Ukraine. It is a 450 - person, single - chamber legislature. The Chairman of the body is elected by its all members. People's Deputies (members of the Verkhovna Rada) are elected for a five- year term according to proportional representation of party or electoral bloc lists. Constitutional changes are being considered that may redefine some of the roles and responsibilities of Ukraine's governmental bodies.
The Prime Minister possesses altogether greater prerogatives than the President, forms the Cabinet of Ministers, and has to have the support of the majority in parliament. The Cabinet of Ministers is the highest executive body of the state.
The Supreme Court of Ukraine is the supreme judicial body. The main duty is to secure the fulfillment of the law. Besides the Supreme Court, there is a special organ – Constitutional Court. The main aim of which is to guarantee the accordance of the newly – adopted laws to the Constitution of Ukraine.
Ukraine comprises 24 regions called oblasts. In addition, the Crimea enjoys a special status a republic with Ukraine, which grants it a significant amount of economic autonomy.
III. Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:
володіти державною мовою
місцеві органи державної влади
вищий орган виконавчої (законодавчої, судової) влади
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